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SUBJECT INDEX 


Aberrant groups

Abyssinia, plants of

Acclimatisation

Affinities of extinct species; of organic beings

Agassiz on Amblyopsis; on groups of species suddenly appearing; on embryological succession; on the glacial period; on embryological characters; on the embryos of vertebrata; on parallelism of embryological development and geological succession

Algae of New Zealand

Alligators, males, fighting

Amblyopsis, blind fish

America, North, productions allied to those of Europe; boulders and glaciers of; South, no modern formations on west coast

Ammonites, sudden extinction of

Anagallis, sterility of

Analog of variations

Ancylus

Animals, not domesticated from being variable; domestic; descended from several stocks; acclimatisation of; of Australia; with thicker fur in cold climates; blind, in caves; extinct, of Australia

Anomma

Antarctic islands, ancient flora of Antirrhinum

Ants attending aphides; slave-making instinct

Ants, neuter, structure of Aphides attended by ants

Aphis, development of Apteryx

Arab horses

Aralo-Caspian Sea

Archiac, M. de, on the succession of species

Artichoke, Jerusalem

Ascension, plants of Asclepias, pollen of Asparagus

Aspicarpa

Asses, striped Ateuchus

Audubon, on habits of frigate-bird; on variation in birds'-nests; on heron eating seeds

Australia, animals of; dogs of; extinct animals of; European plants in

Azara on flies destroying cattle

Azores, flora of

Babington, Mr., on British plants

Balancement of growth

Bamboo with hooks

Barberry, flowers of

Barrande, M., on Silurian colonies; on the succession of species; on parallelism of palaeozoic formations; on affinities of ancient species

Barriers, importance of

Batrachians on islands

Bats, how structure acquired; distribution of

Bear, catching water-insects

Bee, sting of; queen, killing rivals

Bees fertilizing flowers; hive; not sucking the red clover; cell-making instinct; humble, cells of; parasitic

Beetles, wingless, in Madeira; with deficient tarsi

Bentham, Mr., on British plants; on classification

Berkeley, Mr., on seeds in salt-water

Bermuda, birds of

Birds acquiring fear; annually cross the Atlantic; colour of, on continents; fossil, in caves of Brazil; of Madeira, Bermuda, and Galapagos; song of males; transporting seeds; waders; wingless; with traces of embryonic teeth

Bizcacha, affinities of

Bladder for swimming in fish

Blindness of cave animals

Blyth, Mr., on distinctness of Indian cattle; on striped Hemionus; on crossed geese

Boar; shoulder-pad of

Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish pointer

Bory St. Vincent, on Batrachians

Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalus

Boulders, erratic, on the Azores

Branchiae

Brent, Mr., on house-tumblers; on hawks killing pigeons

Brewer, Dr., on American cuckoo

Britain, mammals of

Bronn, on duration of specific forms

Brown, Robert, on classification

Buckman, on variation in plants

Buzareingues on sterility of varieties

Cabbage, varieties of, crossed

Calceolaria

Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids

Cape de Verde islands

Cape of Good Hope, plants of

Carrier-pigeons killed by hawks

Cassini on flowers of composita

Catasetum

Cats, with blue eyes, deaf; variation in habits of; curling tail when going to spring

Cattle destroying fir-trees; destroyed by flies in La Plata; breeds of, locally extinct; fertility of Indian and European breeds

Cave, inhabitants of, blind

Centres of creation

Cephalopodae, development of

Cervulus

Cetacea, teeth and hair

Ceylon, plants of

Chalk formation

Charlock

Checks to increase; mutual

Chickens, instinctive tameness of

Chthamalinae

Chthamalus, cretacean species of

Circumstances favourable to selection of domestic products; to natural selection

Cirripedes capable of crossing; carapace aborted; their ovigerous frena; fossil; larvae of

Clift, Mr., on the succession of types

Climate, effects of, in checking increase of beings; adaptation of, to organisms

Cobites, intestine of

Cockroach

Collections, palaeontological, poor

Colour, influenced by climate; in relation to attacks by flies

Columba livia, parent of domestic pigeons

Colymbetes

Compositae, outer and inner florets of; male flowers of

Conclusion, general

Conditions, slight changes in, favourable to fertility

Coot

Coral-islands, seeds drifted to; reefs, indicating movements of earth

Corn-crake

Correlation of growth in domestic productions; of growth

Cowslip

Creation, single centres of

Crinum

Crosses, reciprocal

Crossing of domestic animals, importance in altering breeds; advantages of; unfavourable to selection

Crustacea of New Zealand

Crustacean, blind

Cryptocerus

Ctenomys, blind

Cuckoo, instinct of

Currants, grafts of

Currents of sea, rate of

Cuvier on conditions of existence; on fossil monkeys; Fred., on instinct

Dana, Prof., on blind cave-animals; on relations of crustaceans of Japan, on crustaceans of New Zealand

De Candolle on struggle for existence; on umbelliferae; on general affinities; Alph., on low plants, widely dispersed; on widely-ranging plants being variable; on naturalisation; on winged seeds; on Alpine species suddenly becoming rare; on distribution of plants with large seeds; on vegetation of Australia; on fresh-water plants; on insular plants

Degradation of coast-rocks

Denudation, rate of; of oldest rocks

Development of ancient forms

Devonian system

Dianthus, fertility of crosses

Dirt on feet of birds

Division, physiological, of labour

Dogs, hairless, with imperfect teeth; descended from several wild stocks; domestic instincts of; inherited civilisation of; fertility of breeds together; of crosses; proportions of, when young

Downing, Mr., on fruit-trees in America

Downs, North and South

Dragon-flies, intestines of

Drift-timber

Driver-ant

Drones killed by other bees

Duck, domestic, wings of, reduced; logger-headed

Duckweed

Dugong, affinities of

Dung-beetles with deficient tarsi

Dyticus

Earl, Mr., W., on the Malay Archipelago

Ears, drooping, in domestic animals; rudimentary

Earth, seeds in roots of trees

Eciton

Edentata, teeth and hair; fossil species of

Edwards, Milne, on physiological divisions of labour; on gradations of structure; on embryological characters

Eggs, young birds escaping from

Electric organs

Elephant, rate increase; of glacial period

Existence, struggle for; conditions of

Eye, structure of; correction for aberration

Eyes reduced in moles

Fabre, M., on parasitic sphex

Falconer, Dr., on naturalisation of plants in India; on fossil crocodile; on elephants and mastodons; and Cautley on mammals of sub-Himalayan beds

Falkland Island, wolf of

Faults

Fear, instinctive, in birds

Feet of birds, young molluscs adhering to

Fertility of hybrids, from slight changes in conditions; of crossed varieties

Fir-trees destroyed by cattle; pollen of

Fish, flying; teleostean, sudden appearance of; eating seeds; fresh-water, distribution of

Fishes, ganoid, now confined to fresh water; electric organs of; of southern hemisphere

Flight, powers of, how acquired

Flowers, structure of; in relation to crossing; of composite and umbelliferae

Forbes, E., on colours of shells; on abrupt range of shells in depth; on poorness of palaeontological collections; on continuous succession of genera; on continental extensions; on distribution during glacial period; on parallelism in time and space

Forests, changes in, in America

Formation, Devonian

Formations, thickness of, in Britain; intermittent

Formica rufescens; sanguinea; flava, neuter of

Frena, ovigerous, of cirripedes

Fresh-water productions, dispersal of

Fries on species in large genera being closely allied to other species

Frigate-bird

Frogs on islands

Fruit-trees, gradual improvement of; in United States; varieties of, acclimatised in United States

Fuci, crossed

Fur, thicker in cold climates

Furze

Galapagos Archipelago, birds of; productions of

Galeopithecus

Game, increase of, checked by vermin

Gartner on sterility of hybrids; on reciprocal crosses; on crossed maize and verbascum; on comparison of hybrids and mongrels

Geese, fertility when crossed; upland

Genealogy important in classification

Geoffroy St. Hilaire on balancement; on homologous organs; Isidore, on variability of repeated parts; on correlation in monstrosities; on correlation; on variable parts being often monstrous

Geographical distribution

Geology, future progress of

Giraffe, tail of

Glacial period

Gmelin on Distribution

Gnathodon, fossil

Godwin-Austin, Mr., on the Malay Archipelago

Goethe on compensation of growth

Gooseberry, grafts of

Gould, Dr. A., on land-shells; Mr., on colours of birds; on birds of the Galapagos; on distribution of genera of birds

Gourds, crossed

Grafts, capacity of

Grasses, varieties of

Gray, Dr. Asa, on trees of United States; on naturalised plants in the United States; on rarity of intermediate varieties; on Alpine plants; Dr. J.E., on striped mule

Grebe

Grouse, colours of; red, a doubtful species

Growth, compensation of; correlation of, in domestic products; correlation of

Habit, effect of, under domestication; effect of, under nature; diversified, of same species

Hair and teeth, correlated

Harcourt, Mr. E.V., on the birds of Madeira

Hartung, M., on boulders in the Azores

Hazel-nuts

Hearne on habits of bears

Heath, changes in vegetation

Heer, O., on plants of Madeira

Helix pomatia

Helosciadium

Hemionus, striped

Herbert, W., on struggle for existence; on sterility of hybrids

Hermaphrodites crossing

Heron eating seed

Heron, Sir R., on peacocks

Heusinger, on white animals not poisoned by certain plants

Hewitt, Mr., on sterility of first crosses

Himalaya, glaciers of; plants of

Hippeastrum

Holly-trees, sexes of

Hollyhock, varieties of, crossed

Hooker, Dr., on trees of New Zealand

Hooker, Dr., on acclimatisation of Himalayan trees; on flowers of umbelliferae; on glaciers of Himalaya; on algae of New Zealand; on vegetation at the base of the Himalaya; on plants of Tierra del Fuego; on Australian plants; on relations of flora of South America; on flora of the Antarctic lands; on the plants of the Galapagos

Hooks on bamboos; to seeds on islands

Horner, Mr., on the antiquity of Egyptians

Horns, rudimentary

Horse, fossil, in La Plata

Horses destroyed by flies in La Plata; striped; proportions of, when young

Horticulturists, selection applied by

Huber on cells of bees; P., on reason blended with instinct; on habitual nature of instincts; on slave-making ants; on Melipona domestica

Humble-bees; cells of

Hunter, J., on secondary sexual characters

Hutton, Captain, on crossed geese

Huxley, Prof., on structure of hermaphrodites; on embryological succession; on homologous organs; on the development of aphis

Hybrids and mongrels compared

Hybridism

Hydra, structure of

Ibla

Icebergs transporting seeds

Individuals, numbers favourable to selection; many, whether simultaneously created

Insects, colour of, fitted for habitation; sea-side colours of; blind, in caves; luminous; neuter

Instincts, domestic

Intercrossing, advantages of

Japan, productions of

Java, plants of

Jones, Mr. J.M., on the birds of Bermuda

Jussieu on classification

Kentucky, caves of

Kerguelen-land, flora of

Kidney-bean, acclimatisation of

Kidneys of birds

Kirby on tarsi deficient in beetles

Knight, Andrew, on cause of variation

Kolreuter on the barberry; on sterility of hybrids; on reciprocal crosses; on crossed varieties of nicotiana; on crossing male and hermaphrodite flowers

Land-shells, distribution of, of Madeira, naturalised

Languages, classification of

Lapse, great, of time

Larvae

Laurel, nectar secreted by the leaves

Laws of variation

Leech, varieties of

Leguminosae, nectar secreted by glands

Lepidosiren

Life, struggle for

Lingula, Silurian

Linnaeus, aphorism of

Lion, mane of; young of, striped

Lobelia fulgens

Lobelia, sterility of crosses

Loess of the Rhine

Lowness of structure connected with variability

Lowness, related to wide distribution

Lubbock, Mr., on the nerves of coccus

Lucas, Dr. P., on inheritance; on resemblance of child to parent

Lund and Clausen on fossils of Brazil

Lyell, Sir C., on the struggle for existence; on modern changes of the earth; on measure of denudation; on a carboniferous land-shell; on fossil whales; on strata beneath Silurian system; on the imperfection of the geological record; on the appearance of species; on Barrande's colonies; on tertiary formations of Europe and North America; on parallelism of tertiary formations; on transport of seeds by icebergs; on great alternations of climate; on the distribution of fresh-water shells; on land-shells of Madeira

Lyell and Dawson on fossilized trees in Nova Scotia

Macleay on analogical characters

Madeira, plants of; beetles of, wingless; fossil land-shells of; birds of

Magpie tame in Norway

Maize, crossed

Malay Archipelago compared with Europe; mammals of

Malpighiaceae

Mammae, rudimentary

Mammals, fossil, in secondary formation; insular

Man, origin of races of

Manatee, rudimentary nails of

Marsupials of Australia, fossil species of

Martens, M., experiment on seeds

Martin, Mr. W.C., on striped mules

Matteuchi on the electric organs of rays

Matthiola, reciprocal crosses of

Means of dispersal

Melipona domestica

Metamorphism of oldest rocks

Mice destroying bees; acclimatisation of

Migration, bears on first appearance of fossils

Miller, Prof., on the cells of bees

Mirabilis, crosses of

Missel-thrush

Misseltoe, complex relations of

Mississippi, rate of deposition at mouth

Mocking-thrush of the Galapagos

Modification of species, how far applicable

Moles, blind

Mongrels, fertility and sterility of; and hybrids compared

Monkeys, fossil

Monocanthus

Mons, Van, on the origin of fruit-trees

Mozart, musical powers of

Mud, seeds in

Mules, striped

Muller, Dr. F., on Alpine Australian plants

Murchison, Sir, R., on the formations of Russia; on azoic formations; on extinction

Mustela vison

Myanthus

Myrmecocystus

Myrmica, eyes of

Nails, rudimentary

Natural history, future progress of

Naturalisation of forms distinct from the indigenous species; in New Zealand

Nautilus, Silurian

Nectar of plants

Nectaries, how formed

Nelumbium luteum

Nests, variation in

Neuter insects

New Zealand, productions of, not perfect; naturalised products of; fossil birds of; glacial action in; crustaceans of; algae of; number of plants of; flora of

Nicotiana, crossed varieties of; certain species very sterile

Noble, Mr., on fertility of Rhododendron

Nodules, phosphatic, in azoic rocks

Oak, varieties of

Onites apelles

Orchis, pollen of

Ornithorhynchus

Ostrich not capable of flight; habit of laying eggs together; American, two species of

Otter, habits of, how acquired

Ouzel, water

Owen, Prof., on birds not flying; on vegetative repetition; on variable length of arms in ourang-outang; on the swim-bladder of fishes; on electric organs; on fossil horse of La Plata; on relations of ruminants and pachyderms; on fossil birds of New Zealand; on succession of types; on affinities of the dugong; on homologous organs; on the metamorphosis of cephalopods and spiders

Pacific Ocean, faunas of

Paley, on no organ formed to give pain

Pallas, on the fertility of the wild stocks of domestic animals

Paraguay, cattle destroyed by flies

Parasites

Partridge, dirt on feet

Parts greatly developed, variable, degrees of utility of

Parus major

Passiflora

Peaches in United States

Pear, grafts of

Pelargonium, flowers of, sterility of

Peloria

Pelvis of women

Period, glacial

Petrels, habits of

Phasianus, fertility of hybrids

Pheasant, young, wild

Pictet, Prof., on groups of species suddenly appearing; on rate of organic change; on continuous succession of genera; on close alliance of fossils in consecutive formations; on embryological succession

Pierce, Mr., on varieties of wolves

Pigeons with feathered feet and skin between toes; breeds described, and origin of; breeds of, how produced; tumbler, not being able to get out of egg; reverting to blue colour; instinct of tumbling; carriers, killed by hawks; young of

Pistil, rudimentary

Plants, poisonous, not affecting certain coloured animals; selection applied to; gradual improvement of; not improved in barbarous countries; destroyed by insects; in midst of range, have to struggle with other plants; nectar of; fleshy, on sea-shores; fresh-water, distribution of; low in scale; widely distributed

Plumage, laws of change in sexes of birds

Plums in the United States

Pointer dog, origin of; habits of

Poison not affecting certain coloured animals

Poison, similar effect of, on animals and plants

Pollen of fir-trees

Poole, Col., on striped hemionus

Prestwich, Mr., on English and French eocene formation

Primrose; sterility of

Primula, varieties of

Proteolepas

Proteus

Psychology, future progress of

Quagga, striped

Quince, grafts of

Rabbit, disposition of young

Race-horses, Arab; English

Races, domestic, characters of

Ramond on plants of Pyrenees

Ramsay, Prof., on thickness of the British formations; on faults

Ratio of increase

Rats, supplanting each other; acclimatisation of; blind in cave

Rattle-snake

Reason and instinct

Recapitulation, general

Reciprocity of crosses

Record, geological, imperfect

Rengger on flies destroying cattle

Resemblance to parents in mongrels and hybrids

Reversion, law of inheritance

Rhododendron, sterility of

Richard, Prof., on Aspicarpa

Richardson, Sir J., on structure of squirrels; on fishes of the southern hemisphere

Robinia, grafts of

Rodents, blind

Rudimentary organs

Rudiments important for classification

Sageret on grafts

Salmons, males fighting, and hooked jaws of

Salt-water, how far injurious to seeds

Saurophagus sulphuratus

Schiodte on blind insects

Schlegel on snakes

Sea-water, how far injurious to seeds

Sebright, Sir J., on crossed animals; on selection of pigeons

Sedgwick, Prof., on groups of species suddenly appearing

Seedlings destroyed by insects

Seeds, nutriment in; winged; power of resisting salt-water; in crops and intestines of birds; eaten by fish; in mud; hooked, on islands

Selection of domestic products, principle not of recent origin; unconscious; natural; sexual; natural, circumstances favourable to

Sexes, relations of

Sexual characters variable; selection

Sheep, Merino, their selection; two sub-breeds unintentionally produced; mountain, varieties of

Shells, colours of, littoral, seldom embedded; fresh-water, dispersal of; of Madeira; land, distribution of

Silene, fertility of crosses

Silliman, Prof., on blind rat

Skulls of young mammals

Slave-making instinct

Smith, Col. Hamilton, on striped horses; Mr. Fred., on slave-making ants; Mr., of Jordan Hill, on degradation of coast-rocks

Snap-dragon

Somerville, Lord, on selection of sheep

Sorbus, grafts of

Spaniel, King Charles's breed

Species, groups of, suddenly appearing; beneath Silurian formations; successively appearing; changing simultaneously throughout the world

Spencer, Lord, on increase in size of cattle

Sphex, parasitic

Spiders, development of

Spitz-dog crossed with fox

Sports in plants

Sprengel, C.C., on crossing; on ray-florets

Squirrels, gradations in structure

Staffordshire, heath, changes in

Stag-beetles, fighting

Sterility from changed conditions of life; of hybrids; laws of; causes of; from unfavourable conditions; of certain varieties

St. Helena, productions of

St. Hilaire, Aug., on classification

St. John, Mr., on habits of cats

Sting of bee

Stocks, aboriginal, of domestic animal

Strata, thickness of, in Britain

Stripes of horses

Swallow, one species supplanting another

Swim-bladder

Tail of giraffe; of aquatic animals; rudimentary

Tarsi deficient

Tausch on umbelliferous flowers

Teeth and hair correlated; embryonic, traces of, in birds; rudimentary, in embryonic calf

Tegetmeier, Mr., on cells of bees

Temminck on distribution aiding classification

Thouin on grafts

Thrush, aquatic species of; mocking, of the Galapagos; young of, spotted; nest of

Thuret, M., on crossed fuci

Thwaites, Mr., on acclimatisation

Tierra del Fuego, dogs of; plants of

Timber-drift

Time, lapse of

Titmouse

Toads on islands

Tobacco, crossed varieties of

Tomes, Mr., on the distribution of bats

Transitions in varieties

Trees on islands belong to peculiar orders; with separated sexes

Trifolium pratense; incarnatum

Trigonia

Trilobites; sudden extinction of

Troglodytes

Tucutucu, blind

Tumbler pigeons, habits of, hereditary; young of

Turkey-cock, brush of hair on breast

Turkey, naked skin on head; young, wild

Turnip and cabbage, analogous variations of

Type, unity of

Types, succession of, in same areas

Udders enlarged by use; rudimentary

Ulex, young leaves of

Umbelliferae, outer and inner florets of

Unity of type

Use, effects of, under domestication

Utility, how far important in the construction of each part

Valenciennes on fresh-water fish

Variability of mongrels and hybrids

Variations appear at corresponding ages; analogous in distinct species

Varieties, natural; struggle between; domestic, extinction of; transitional; when crossed, fertile; when crossed, sterile; classification of

Verbascum, sterility of; varieties of, crossed

Verneuil, M. de, on the succession of species

Viola tricolor

Volcanic islands, denudation of

Vulture, naked skin on head

Wading-birds

Wallace, Mr., on origin of species; on law of geographical distribution; on the Malay Archipelago

Wasp, sting of

Water, fresh, productions of

Water-hen

Waterhouse, Mr., on Australian marsupials; on greatly developed parts being variable; on the cells of bees; on general affinities

Water-ouzel

Watson, Mr. H.C., on range of varieties of British plants; on acclimatisation; on flora of Azores; on Alpine plants; on rarity of intermediate varieties

Weald, denudation of

Web of feet in water-birds

West Indian islands, mammals of

Westwood on species in large genera being closely allied to others; on the tarsi of Engidae; on the antennae of hymenopterous insects

Whales, fossil

Wheat, varieties of

White Mountains, flora of

Wings, reduction of size

Wings of insects homologous with branchiae; rudimentary, in insects

Wolf crossed with dog; of Falkland Isles

Wollaston, Mr., on varieties of insects; on fossil varieties of land-shells in Madeira; on colours of insects on sea-shore; on wingless beetles; on rarity of intermediate varieties; on insular insects; on land-shells of Madeira, naturalised

Wolves, varieties of

Woodpecker, habits of; green colour of

Woodward, Mr., on the duration of specific forms; on the continuous succession of genera; on the succession of types

World, species changing simultaneously throughout

Wrens, nest of

Youatt, Mr., on selection, on sub-breeds of sheep; on rudimentary horns in young cattle Zebra, stripes on

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